We will send along with your new addition, breed
specific information as well as general health
information, the vaccination record, information on
upcoming vaccination and worming needs, and if
available,  parent pictures.

Thank- you ,
L.Hammar, DVM
Hammar Farms
Treat them with kindness and they
will flourish
Spend time with them and your bond
will grow strong
Care for them well and your rewards
shall be many
As genetic testing has
both improved with the
types of issues testing for
and the accuracy of the
results, we will be posting
educational information.

We  have and will  
continue using this
information to guide our
breeding program for the
benefit of our offspring.
Hereditary Cataracts
There are several types of inherited cataracts in the dog which vary in both their appearance and age of onset. The majority of
these are inherited as autosomal recessive traits, but some are inherited as dominant or perhaps polygenic trait.
Recently, Dr., Cathryn Mellersh's research group at the Animal Health Trust identified a mutation in heat shock transcription
factor gene, HSF4, which is responsible for recessively inherited cataracts in Boston Terriers, French Bulldogs, and
Staffordshire Bull Terriers. The test offered here is based on that work.
It should be noted both early onset (EHC), also referred to as juvenile hereditary cataract, and late onset (LHC) cataracts
occur in the Boston Terrier breed, and this test is only relevant to the former. In the Boston terrier EHC progress to complete
cataract and blindness by 2 - 3 years of age, and LHC only occasionally interfere with vision and is seen before 8
yearsofage. In the Staffordshire bull terrier dogs EHC are seen by 12 months and progress to blindness by 3 years of age.
Canine Multifocal Retinopathy (CMR1 & CMR2)
The tests for CMR1 and CMR2 offered by Vetgen are based on the work presented by Zangerl et al. at the fifth international
symposium on "Advances in Canine and Feline Genomics and Inherited Disease." The research identified recessive
mutations in the BEST1 gene that lead to CMR in puppies which inherit a mutant copy of the gene from each parent. Affected
animals generally show their first symptoms in their first year.

While both mutations are in the same gene, they are breed specific and testing for only one is required. Coton de Tulear
need only test for CMR2 which tests for a mutation only seen in that breed to date. All other breeds that are offered should
test for CMR1.
s > Cystinuria
Breeds Serviced

Cystinuria in dogs is indicated by the presence of cystine stones in the kidney, bladder or ureter. Failure by the
kidneys to reabsorb amino acids results in the formation of cystine crystals and sometimes stones in the urine which can
lead to blockage of the urethra. While the disease is not genetically sex-linked, it is diagnosed in male dogs more frequently
than females due to anatomical differences. We offer a tests based on the research done at the University of Pennsylvania
which identified mutations responsible for cystinuria in several breeds
Degenerative Myelopathy (DM)
Degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in many breeds of dog. The test we
offer is based on the research done at the University of Missouri which identified mutations in the SOD1-A gene. To date, the
major mutation associated with this disease has been detected in 124 breeds, with a second mutation, SOD1-B limited to
the Bernese Mountain Dog. The test for this second mutation is DM-exon1.

The disease is an adult-onset condition that has ALS like symptoms: progressive limb weakness and muscle loss, tremors,
difficulty rising, and stumbling. Affected animals develop spinal and hind end problems later in life. It is inherited as a
recessive disease based on these mutations, but there is also ongoing work to determine other factors that may play a role
in severity and age of onset.
Inherited hyperuricosuria (HU) causes dogs to produce urine with very high levels of uric acid. This can lead to bladder
stones, and less frequently kidney stones. The disease is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. The VetGen test is
based on research performed at the University of California Davis which identified the mutation responsible for the disease.

The test may offered to all breeds, including Dalmatian*, Bulldog, Black Russian Terrier, Weimaraner, Parson Russell
Terrier, Pitbull, American Staffordshire Terrier, Giant Schnauzer, South African Boerboel, German Shepherd Dog, Large
Munsterlander, and Australian Shepherd.

The frequency of this disease is very, very low in the Labrador, but carriers have been detected.
CHG-Congenital Hypothyroidism with Goiter
CHG-Congenital Hypothyroidism with Goiter in dogs is inherited as an autosomal recessive disease. As with adult onset
hypothyroidism, there are a number of metabolic abnormalities seen in affected pups, but there are also additional
symptoms such as delayed development, small stature, difficulty nursing and other symptoms collectively referred to as
cretinism. The cause of this disease in dogs can be attributed to mutations in the Thyroid Peroxidase gene discovered by
researchers at Michigan State University and elsewhere.

Our adults must have
healthy lumbar
vertebrae, we xrays for:
Related terms: Congenital vertebral anomalies, wedge

Outline: French bulldogs commonly have deformities of
the bones of the spine. These can lead to pressure on the
spinal cord resulting in progressive pain and loss of hind
limb function and incontinence.
The exact genetics of this condition have yet to be worked
out; however, French bulldogs are considered to be
predisposed to hemivertebrae because of the breed
characteristic of a screw-tail. The gene(s) causing the
screw-tail deformity (which involves hemivertebrae in the
tail) are thought also to be involved in producing
hemivertebrae elsewhere in the spine.

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